2020.10.20 12:46 rusticgorilla Lost in the Sauce: Team Trump attempts to smear Biden using possible Russian disinformation
Welcome to Lost in the Sauce, keeping you caught up on political and legal news that often gets buried in distractions and theater… or a global health crisis.
Attorney Kyle Hirsch testified under oath that Williams’ intervention exerted inappropriate pressure on UMB and that unless the CEO agreed to meet with his donor there could be problems for the bank in Congress. “The Congressman indicated that his role on the Financial Services Committee included legislation that was coming down the pike and that he was urging the bank to meet with his constituent or there would be adverse consequences as it relates to his role on the Financial Services Committee,” Hirsch said, according to his deposition in the case.For at least seven years, GOP Rep. Jim Hagedorn (MN-1) appears to have enjoyed rent-free use of a campaign office supplied by a political donor. “It sounds like something that could potentially be a fairly serious violation of campaign finance law and the ethics rules,” said Bryson Morgan, a former investigative counsel at the Office of Congressional Ethics.
“I don’t know how much it affected fundraising today, but if you want to help me close the gap — LindseyGraham.com — a little bit goes a long way,” said Graham, R-S.C, who is locked in a highly competitive race against well-funded Democratic challenger Jaime Harrison.Sen. Martha McSally (R-AZ) has used her office’s taxpayer-funded resources to send out a robocall touting a key campaign issue—her work on COVID-19 policy—to Arizonans. Normally, mass official communication with constituents so close to an election would be prohibited. But a waiver approved by the Senate Rules Committee in March has made it permissible—if, and only if, the communication is for the purposes of “providing updated information about the pandemic, and providing information about the federal government's response.”
“Our conclusion is straightforward because the Members — 29 Senators and 186 Members of the House of Representatives — do not constitute a majority of either body and are, therefore, powerless to approve or deny the President’s acceptance of foreign emoluments,” the [earlier three-judge panel] ruled.
2020.10.18 09:45 42-pigeons-on-reddit Sex hidden scandal
All my life I’ve wondered about life beyond the Earth. On those countless other planets that we think circle other suns, is there also life? Might the beings of other worlds resemble us or would they be astonishingly different? What would they be made of? In the vast Milky Way galaxy how common is what we call life? The nature of life on Earth and the quest for life elsewhere are the two sides of the same question: the search for who we are. All living things on Earth are made of organic molecules, a complex microscopic architecture built around atoms of carbon. In the great dark between the stars there also are organic molecules in immense clouds of gas and dust. And inside such clouds there are batches of new worlds just forming. Their surfaces are very likely covered with organic molecules. These molecules almost certainly are not made by life although, they are the stuff of life. On suitable worlds, they may lead to life. Organic matter is abundant throughout the cosmos, produced by the same chemistry everywhere. Perhaps, given enough time, the origin and evolution of life is inevitable on every clement world. There will surely be some planets too hostile for life. On others, it may arise and die out, or never evolve beyond its simplest forms. And on some small fraction of worlds there may develop intelligences and civilizations more advanced than ours. All life on our planet is closely related. We have a common organic chemistry and a common evolutionary heritage, and so our biologists are profoundly limited. They study a single biology, one lonely theme in the music of life. Is it the only voice for thousands of light years or is there a cosmic fugue, a billion different voices playing the life music of the galaxy? This blue world is where we grew up. There was once a time before life. Our planet is now burgeoning with life. How did it come about? How were organic molecules originally made? How did life evolve to produce beings as elaborate and complex as we, able to explore the mystery of our own origins? Let me tell you a story about one little phrase in the music of life on Earth. In the history of humans, in the 12th century, Japan was ruled by a clan of warriors called the Heike. The nominal leader of the Heike, the emperor of Japan, was a seven-year-old boy named Antoku. His guardian was his grandmother, the Lady Nii. The Heike were engaged in a long and bloody war with another Samurai clan, the Genji. Each asserted a superior ancestral claim to the imperial throne. Their decisive encounter occurred at Dannoura in the Japanese Inland Sea on April 24 in the year 1185. The Heike were badly outnumbered and outmaneuvered. With their cause clearly lost, the surviving Heike warriors threw themselves into the sea and drowned. The emperor’s grandmother, the Lady Nii, resolved that they would not be captured by the enemy. What happened next is related in The Tale of the Heike. The young emperor asked the Lady Nii, “Where are you to take me?” She turned to the youthful sovereign with tears streaming down her cheeks and comforted him. Blinded with tears, the child sovereign put his beautiful small hands together. He turned first to the east to say farewell to the god of Ise, and then to the west to recite the Nambutsu, a prayer to the Amida Buddha. The Lady Nii took him in her arms, and with the words “In the depths of the ocean is our capital” sank with him at last beneath the waves. The destruction of the Heike battle fleet at Dannoura marked the end of the clan’s thirty-year rule. The Heike all but vanished from history. Only 43 Heike survived; all women. These former ladies-in-waiting of the Imperial Court were reduced to selling flowers and other favors to the fishermen near the scene of the battle. These women and their offspring by the fishermen established a festival to commemorate the battle. To this day, every year, on the 24th of April, their descendants proceed to the Akama shrine which contains the mausoleum of the drowned seven-year-old emperor Antoku. There, they conduct a ceremony of remembrance for the life and death of the Heike warriors. But there is a strange postscript to this story. The fishermen say that the Heike samurai wander the bottom of the Inland Sea still, in the form of crabs. There are crabs here which have curious markings on their backs; patterns which resemble a human face with the aggressive scowl of a samurai warrior from medieval Japan. These Heike crabs, when caught, are not eaten. They are thrown back into the sea in commemoration of the doleful events of the battle of Dannoura. This legend raises a lovely problem: how does it come about that the face of a warrior is cut on the carapace of a Japanese crab? How could it be? The answer seems to be that humans made this face. But how? Like many other features, the patterns on the back—or carapace—of this crab are inherited. But among crabs, as among humans, there are different hereditary lines. Now suppose, purely by chance, among the distant ancestors of this crab, there came to be one which looked just a little bit like a human face. Long before the battle, fishermen may have been reluctant to eat a crab with a human face. In throwing it back into the sea they were setting into motion a process of selection. If you’re a crab and your carapace is just ordinary, the humans are gonna eat you. But if it looks a little bit like a face they’ll throw you back, and you can have lots of baby crabs that all look just like you. As many generations passed—of crabs and fisher-folk alike—the crabs with patterns that looked most like a samurai face preferentially survived until, eventually, there was produced not just a human face, not just a Japanese face, but the face of a samurai warrior. All this has nothing to do with what the crabs might want. Selection is imposed from the outside. The more you look like a samurai, the better your chances of survival. Eventually, there are a lot of crabs that look like samurai warriors. This process is called artificial selection. In the case of the Heike crab, it was effected more or less unconsciously by the fishermen, and certainly without any serious contemplation by the crabs. Humans, for thousands of years, have deliberately selected which plants and animals shall live. We’re surrounded with farm and domestic animals, fruits, vegetables. Where do they come from? Were they once free-living in their present form in the wild and then induced to adopt some less strenuous life on the farm? No. They are, almost all of them, made by us. The essence of artificial selection for a horse, or a cow, a grain of rice, or a Heike crab is this: many characteristics are inherited. They breed true. Humans encourage the reproduction of some varieties and discourage the reproduction of others. The variety selected for eventually becomes abundant. The variety selected against becomes rare, maybe extinct. But if artificial selection makes such changes in only a few thousand years, what must natural selection—working for billions of years—be capable of? The answer is all the beauty and diversity in the biological world. That life evolved over the ages is clear from the changes we’ve made in the beasts and vegetables, but also from the record in the rocks. The fossil evidence speaks to us unambiguously of creatures that were once present in enormous numbers and that have now vanished utterly. There are far more species that have become extinct than exist today. They are the terminated experiments in evolution. These guys, for example—the trilobites—appeared 600 million years ago. They were around for 300 million years. They’re all gone. There’s none left. But in those old rocks there are no fossils of people or cattle. We’ve evolved only recently. Evolution is a fact, not a theory. It really happened. That the mechanism of evolution is natural selection was the great discovery of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. Here’s how it works: nature is prolific, there are many more creatures that are born than can possibly survive. So those varieties which are, by accident, less well adapted don’t survive, or at least they leave fewer offspring. Now, mutations—sudden changes in heredity—are passed on. They breed true. The environment selects those occasional mutations which enhance survival. And the resulting series of slow changes in the nature of living beings is the origin of new species. Well, many people were scandalized by the ideas of evolution and natural selection. Our ancestors looked at the intricacy and the beauty of life and saw evidence for a great designer. The simplest organism is a far more complex machine than the finest pocket watch. And yet, pocket watches don’t spontaneously self-assemble or evolve in slow stages on their own from, say, grandfather clocks. A watch implies a watchmaker. So there seemed to be no way in which atoms could spontaneously fall together and create, say, a dandelion. The idea of a designer is an appealing and altogether human explanation of the biological world. But as Darwin and Wallace showed, there’s another way—equally human and far more compelling. Natural selection, which makes the music of life more beautiful as the eons pass. To understand the passage of the eons we have compressed all of time into a single cosmic year with the big bang on January first. Every month here represents a little over a billion years. The Earth didn’t form until the cosmic year was two-thirds over. Our understanding of the history of life is very recent, occupying only the last few seconds of December 31st; that small white spot at bottom right in the cosmic calendar. What happened on Earth may be more or less typical of the evolution of life on many worlds. But in its details the story of life on Earth is probably unique in all the Milky Way galaxy. The secrets of evolution are time and death. Time for the slow accumulation of favorable mutations, and death to make room for new species. Life on Earth arose in September of the cosmic calendar, when our world, still heavily battered and cratered from its violent origin, may have looked a little like the moon. The Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. In the cosmic calendar, it condensed out of interstellar gas and dust around September 14th. We know from the fossil record that the origin of life originated soon afterwards—maybe around September 25th, something like that. Probably in the ponds and oceans of the primitive Earth. Now, the first living things were not anything so complex as a one-celled organism, which already is a highly sophisticated form of life. No, the first stirrings of life were much more humble and happened on the molecular level. In those early days, lightning and ultraviolet light from the sun were breaking apart simple hydrogen-rich molecules in the primitive atmosphere, and the fragments of the molecules were spontaneously recombining into more and more complex molecules. The products of this early chemistry dissolved in the oceans, forming a kind of organic soup of gradually increasing complexity. Until, one day, quite by accident, a molecule arose that was able to make crude copies of itself, using as building blocks the other molecules in the soup. This was the ancestor of DNA, the master molecule of life on Earth. It’s made of four different molecular parts, called nucleotides, which constitute the four letters of the genetic code—the language of heredity. Each of the four nucleotides, the rungs on the DNA ladder, are a different color in this model. The instructions that are spelled out are different for different organisms—that’s why organisms are different. Now, a mutation is a change of a nucleotide; a misspelling of the genetic instructions. Most mutations spell genetic nonsense, as you’d expect, because they’re random. They’re harmful for the next generation. But a very few, by accident, make better sense than the original instructions and aid the evolution of life. DNA is about a billion times smaller than we see it here. In fact, each of those things that looks like a piece of fruit is an atom. Without the tools of science, the machinery of life would be invisible. Four billion years ago, the ancestors of DNA were competing for molecular building blocks and leaving crude copies of themselves. There were no predators; the stuff of life was everywhere. So the oceans and murky pools that filled the craters were, for these molecules, a Garden of Eden. With reproduction, mutation, and natural selection, the evolution of living molecules was well underway. Varieties with specialized functions then joined together, making a collective: the first cell. The organic soup eventually ate itself up. But by this time, plants had evolved, able to use sunlight to make their own building blocks. They turned the waters green. A number of one-celled plants joined together—the first multi-cellular organisms. Equally important was the invention—not made until early November—of sex. It was stumbled upon by the microbes. By December 1st, green plants had released copious amounts of oxygen and nitrogen into the atmosphere. The sky is made by life. Then, suddenly, on December 15th, there was an enormous proliferation of new life forms, an event called the Cambrian explosion. We know from the fossil record that life arose shortly after the formation of the Earth, suggesting that the origin of life might be an inevitable chemical process on countless Earth-like planets throughout the cosmos. But on the Earth, in nearly 4 billion years, life advanced no further than algae. So maybe more complex forms of life are harder to evolve—harder, even, than the origin of life itself. If this is right, the planets of the galaxy might be filled with microorganisms, but big beasts and vegetables and thinking beings might be comparatively rare. By December 18th, there were vast herds of trilobites foraging on the ocean bottom, and squid-like creatures with their multicolored shells were everywhere. We know enough to sketch in a few of the subsequent details. The first fish and the first vertebrates appeared on December 19th. Plants began to colonize the land on December 20th. The first winged insects fluttered by on December 22nd. And on this date, also, there were the first amphibians: creatures, something like the lungfish, able to survive both on land and in water. Our direct ancestors were now leaving the oceans behind. The first trees and the first reptiles evolved on December 23rd; two amazing evolutionary developments. We are descended from some of those reptiles. The dinosaurs appeared on Christmas Eve. There were many different kinds of dinosaurs. The Earth was once their planet. Many stood upright and had some fair intelligence. Great lizards crashed and thundered through the steaming jungles. Unnoticed by the dinosaurs, a new creature—whose young were born live and helpless—was making its timid debut. The first mammals emerged on December 26th, the first birds on the following day. But the dinosaurs still dominated the planet. Then, suddenly, without warning, all over the planet at once, the dinosaurs died. The cause is unknown, but the lesson is clear: even 160 million years on a planet is no guarantee of survival. The dinosaurs perished around the time of the first flower. On December 30th, the first creatures who looked even a little bit human evolved, accompanied by a spectacular increase in the size of their brains. And then, on the evening of the last day of the last month—only a few million years ago—the first true humans took their place on the cosmic calendar. The written record of history occupies only the last 10 seconds of the cosmic year. Now, let’s take a closer look at who our ancestors were. A simple chemical circumstance led to one of the great moments in the history of our planet. There were many kinds of molecules in the primordial soup. Some were attracted to water on one side and repelled by it on the other. This drove them together into a tiny enclosed spherical shell like a soap bubble, which protected the interior. Within the bubble, the ancestors of DNA found a home and the first cell arose. It took hundreds of millions of years for tiny plants to evolve, giving off oxygen. But that branch didn’t lead to us. Bacteria that could breathe oxygen took over a billion more years to evolve. From a naked nucleus, a cell developed with a nucleus inside. Some of these amoeba-like forms led, eventually, to plants. Others produced colonies with inside and outside cells performing different functions. Becoming a polyp attached to the ocean floor filtering food from the water and evolving little tentacles to direct food into a primitive mouth. This humble ancestor of ours also led to spiny-skinned armored animals with internal organs, including our cousin, the starfish. But we don’t come from starfish. About 550 million years ago, filter feeders evolved gill slits which were more efficient at straining food particles from the water. One evolutionary branch led to acorn worms. Another led to a creature which swam freely in the larval stage but, as an adult, was still firmly anchored to the ocean floor. Some became living hollow tubes. But others retained the larval forms throughout the life cycle and became free-swimming adults with something like a backbone. Our ancestors now, 500 million years ago, were jawless filter-feeding fish a little like lampreys. Gradually, those tiny fish evolved eyes and jaws. Fish then began to eat one another. If you could swim fast, you survived. If you had jaws to eat with, you could now use your gills to breathe the oxygen in the water. This is the way modern fish arose. During the summer, swamps and lakes dried up, so some fish evolved a primitive lung to breathe air until the rains came. Their brains were getting bigger. If the rains didn’t come, it was handy to be able to pull yourself along to the next swamp. That was a very important adaptation. The first amphibians evolved, still with a fish-like tail. Amphibians, like fish, laid their eggs in water, where they were easily eaten. But then a splendid new invention came along: the hard-shelled egg, laid on the land, where there were—as yet—no predators. Reptiles and turtles go back to those days. Many of the reptiles hatched on land never returned to the waters. Some became the dinosaurs. One line of dinosaurs developed feathers, useful for short flights. Today, the only living descendants of the dinosaurs are the birds. The great dinosaurs evolved along another branch. Some were the largest flesh-eaters ever to walk the land. But 65 million years ago, they all mysteriously perished. Meanwhile, the forerunners of the dinosaurs were also evolving in a different direction. Small, scurrying creatures with the young growing inside the mother’s body. After the extinction of the dinosaurs, many different forms developed. The young were very immature at birth. In the marsupials—the wombat, for example—and in the mammals, the young had to be taught how to survive. The brain grew larger still. Something like a shrew was the ancestor of all the mammals. One line took to the trees, developing dexterity, stereo vision, larger brains, and a curiosity about their environment. Some became baboons, but that’s not the line to us. Apes and humans have a recent common ancestor. Bone for bone, muscle for muscle, molecule for molecule. There are almost no important differences between apes and humans. Unlike the chimpanzee, our ancestors walked upright, freeing their hands to poke and fix and experiment. We got smarter. We began to talk. Many collateral branches of the human family became extinct in the last few million years. We, with our brains and our hands, are the survivors. There’s an unbroken thread that stretches from those first cells to us. Let’s look at it again compressing 4 billion years of evolution into 40 seconds. Those are some of the things that molecules do, given 4 billion years of evolution. We sometimes represent evolution as the ever-branching ramifications of some original trunk, each branch pruned and clipped by natural selection. Every plant and animal alive today has a history as ancient and illustrious as ours. Humans stand on one branch. But now we affect the future of every branch of this 4-billion-year-old tree. How lovely trees are. The human species grew up in and around them. We have a natural affinity for trees. Trees photosynthesize—they harvest sunlight; they compete for the sun’s favors. Look at those two trees over there: pushing and shoving for sunlight, but with grace and astonishing slowness. There are so many plants on the Earth that there’s a danger of thinking them trivial, of losing sight of the subtlety and efficiency of their design. They are great and beautiful machines, powered by sunlight, taking in water from the ground and carbon dioxide from the air, and converting them into food for their use and ours. This is a museum of living plants. The Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in London. Every plant uses the carbohydrates it makes as an energy source to go about its planty business. And we animals—who are ultimately parasites on the plants—we steal the carbohydrates so we can go about our business. In eating the plants and their fruits, we combine the carbohydrates with oxygen which—as a result of breathing—we’ve dissolved in our blood. From this chemical reaction, we extract the energy which makes us go. In the process, we exhale carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which the plants then use to make more carbohydrates. What a marvelous cooperative arrangement! Plants and animals each using the other’s waste gases; the whole cycle powered by abundant sunlight. But there would be carbon dioxide in the air even if there were no animals. We need the plants much more than they need us. There are many family resemblances among the organisms of the Earth. Some are very apparent, such as the use of the number five. Humans have five major bodily projections: one head, two arms, two legs. So do ducks—although the functions of their bodily projections are not quite the same. An octopus or a centipede has a different plan. And a being from another planet might be much stranger still. These family resemblances continue, and on a much deeper level, when we go to the molecular basis of life. There are tens of billions of different kinds of organic molecules. Yet, only about 50 of them are used in the essential machinery of life. The same 50 employed over and over again, ingenious, for different functions in every living thing. And when we go to the very kernel of life on Earth—to the proteins that control cell chemistry,to the spiral or helix of nucleic acids which carry the hereditary information—we find these molecules to be absolutely identical in all plants and animals of our planet. This oak tree and me, we’re made of the same stuff. If you go back, you’ll find that we have a common ancestor. That’s why our chemistry is so alike. Let’s take a trip to examine this common basis of life; a voyage to investigate the molecular machinery at the heart of life on Earth: a journey to the nucleus of the cell. First we need a cell. I have trillions, I can afford to donate a few. The casual act of pricking a finger is an event of some magnitude on the scale of the very small. Millions of red blood cells are detoured from their usual routes. But most continue to cruise about the body carrying their cargoes of oxygen to the remotest freckle. We’re about to enter the living cell—a realm, in its own way, as complex and beautiful as the realm of galaxies and stars. Among the red blood cells, we encounter a white blood cell—a lymphocyte—whose job it is to protect me against invading microbes. It makes antibodies on its furrowed surface. But its interior is like that of many cells. Plunging through the membrane, we find ourselves inside the cell. Here, every structure has its function. Those dark green blobs are factories where messenger molecules are busy building the enzymes which control the chemistry of the cell. The messengers were instructed and dispatched from within the nucleus, the heart and brain of the cell. All the instructions on how to get a cell to work and how to make another are hidden away in there. We find a tunnel, a nuclear pore, an approach to the biological holy of holies. These necklaces, these intricately looped and coiled strands are nucleic acids, DNA. Everything you need to know on how to make a human being is encoded in the language of life, in the DNA molecule. This is the DNA double helix: a machine with about 100 billion moving parts, called atoms. There are as many atoms in one molecule of DNA as there are stars in a typical galaxy. The sequence of nucleotides, here brightly colored, is all that’s passed on from generation to generation. Change the order of the nucleotides and you change the genetic instructions. DNA must replicate itself with extreme fidelity. The reproduction of a DNA molecule begins by separating the two helices. This is accomplished by an unwinding enzyme. Like some precision tool, this enzyme, shown in blue, breaks the chemical bonds that bind the two helices of DNA together. The enzyme works its way down the molecule, unzipping DNA as it goes. Each helix copies the other, supervised by special enzymes. The organic soup inside the nucleus contains many free nucleotides. The enzyme recognizes an approaching nucleotide and clicks it into place, reproducing another rung in the double helix. When the DNA is replicating in one of your cells, a few dozen nucleotides are added every second. Thousands of these enzymes may be working on a given DNA molecule. When an arriving nucleotide doesn’t fit, the enzyme throws it away. We call this proofreading. On the rare occasions of a proofreading error, the wrong nucleotide is attached and a small random change has been made in the genetic instructions—a mutation has occurred. This enzyme is a pretty small molecule, but it catches nucleotides, assembles them in the right order,it knows how to proofread, it’s responsible in the most fundamental way for the reproduction of every cell and every being on Earth. That enzyme, and DNA itself, are molecular machines with awesome powers. Within every living thing, the molecular machines are busy making sure that nucleic acids will continue to reproduce. A minor cut in my skin sounds a local alarm, and the blood spins a complex net of strong fibers to form a clot and staunch the flow of blood. There’s a very delicate balance here: too much clotting and your blood stream will solidify. Too little clotting and you’ll bleed to death from the merest scratch. The balance is controlled by enzymes instructed by DNA. Down here, there’s also a kind of sanitation squad comprised of white blood cells that swings into action, surrounds invading bacteria, and ravenously consumes them. This mopping-up operation is another part of the healing process—again controlled by DNA. These cells are parts of us, but how alien they seem. Within each of them, within every cell, there are exquisitely evolved molecular machines. Nucleic acids, enzymes, the cell architecture—every cell is a triumph of natural selection. And we’re made of trillions of cells. We are, each of us, a multitude. Within us is a little universe. Human DNA is a coiled ladder a billion nucleotides long. Many possible combinations of nucleotides are nonsense—that is, they translate into proteins which serve no useful function whatever. Only a comparatively few nucleic acid molecules are any good for life forms as complicated as we are. But even so, the number of useful ways of assembling nucleic acids is stupefyingly large. It’s probably larger than the total number of atoms in the universe. This means that the number of possible kinds of human beings is vastly greater than the number of human beings that has ever lived. This untapped potential of the human species is immense. There must be ways of putting nucleic acids together which will function far better by any criterion you wish to choose than the hereditary instructions of any human being who has ever lived. Fortunately, we do not know—or, at least, do not yet know—how to assemble alternative sequences of nucleotides to make alternative kinds of human beings. But in the future we might well be able to put nucleotides together in any desired sequence to produce whatever human characteristics we think desirable. A disquieting and awesome prospect. We human beings don’t look very much like a tree. We certainly view the world differently than a tree does. But down deep, at the molecular heart of life, we’re essentially identical to trees. We both use nucleic acids as the hereditary material, we both use proteins as enzymes to control the chemistry of the cell, and—most significantly—we both use the identical codebook to translate nucleic acid information into protein information. Any tree could read my genetic code. How did such astonishing similarities come about? Why are we cousins to the trees? Would life on some other planet use proteins? The same proteins? The same nucleic acids? The same genetic code? The usual explanation is that we are—all of us: trees and people, anglerfish, slime molds, bacteria—all descended from a single and common instance of the origin of life four billion years ago in the early days of our planet. Now, how did the molecules of life arise? In a laboratory at Cornell University we mix together the gases and waters of the primitive Earth, supply some energy, and see if we can make the stuff of life. But what was the early atmosphere made of? Ordinary air? If we start with our present atmosphere, the experiment is a dismal failure. Instead of making proteins and nucleic acids, all we make is smog—a backwards step. Why doesn’t such an experiment work? Because the air of today contains molecular oxygen. But oxygen is made by plants. It’s pretty obvious that there were no plants before the origin of life. We mustn’t use oxygen in our experiments because there wasn’t any in the early atmosphere. This is perfectly reasonable because the cosmos is made mostly of hydrogen, which gobbles oxygen up. The Earth’s low gravity has allowed most of our original hydrogen gas to trickle away to space. There’s almost none left. But 4 billion years ago, our atmosphere was full of hydrogen-rich gases: methane, ammonia, water vapor. These are the gases we should use. Taking great care to ensure the purity of these gases, my colleague, Bishun Khare, pumps them from their holding flasks. An experiment like this was first performed by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey in the 1950s. The starting gases are now introduced into a large reaction vessel. We could shine ultraviolet light on this mixture, simulating the early sun. But in this experiment the gases will be sparked, as the primitive atmosphere was, by early lightning. After only a few hours, the interior of the reaction vessel becomes streaked with a strange brown pigment—a rich collection of complex organic molecules including the building blocks of the proteins and the nucleic acids. Under the right conditions, these building blocks assemble themselves into molecules resembling little proteins and little nucleic acids. These nucleic acids can even make identical copies of themselves. In this vessel are the notes of the music of life, although not yet the music itself. Now, no one so far has mixed together the gases and waters of the primitive Earth and, at the end of the experiment, had something crawl out of the flask. There’s still a great deal to be understood about the origin of life, including the origin of the genetic code. But we’ve only been at such experiments for 30 years. Nature’s had a 4-billion-year head start. Incidentally, there’s nothing in such experiments that’s unique to the Earth. The gases we start with, the energy sources we use are entirely common through the cosmos. So, chemical reactions something like these must be responsible for the organic matter in interstellar space and the amino acids in the meteorites. Similar chemical reactions must have occurred on a billion other worlds in the Milky Way galaxy. Look how easy it is to make great globs of this stuff! The molecules of life fill the cosmos. Now, what would life elsewhere look like? Even if it had an identical molecular chemistry to life on Earth—which I very much doubt—it could not be very similar in form to familiar organisms on the Earth. The random character of the evolutionary process must create, elsewhere, creatures very different from any that we know. Think of a world something like Jupiter, with an atmosphere rich in hydrogen, helium, methane, water, and ammonia, in which organic molecules might be falling from the skies like manna from heaven—like the products of the Miller-Urey experiment. Could there be life on such a world? Well, there’s a special problem. The atmosphere is turbulent, and down deep, before we ever come to a surface, it’s very hot. If you’re not careful, you’ll be carried down and fried. So one way to make a living is to reproduce before you’re fried. Turbulence will carry your offspring into the higher and cooler layers. Such organisms could be very little. We call them sinkers. The physicist E. E. Salpeter and I at Cornell have calculated something about the other kinds of life that might exist on such a world. Vast living balloons could stay buoyant by pumping heavy gases from their interiors or by keeping their insides warm. They might eat the organic molecules in the air or make their own with sunlight. We call these creatures floaters. We imagine floaters kilometers across, enormously larger than the greatest whale that ever was—beings the size of cities. We conceive of them arrayed in great, lazy herds as far as the eye can see, concentrated in the updrafts in the enormous sea of clouds. But there can be other creatures in this alien environment: hunters. Hunters are fast and maneuverable. They eat the floaters, both for their organic molecules and for their store of pure hydrogen. But there can’t be many hunters, because if they destroy all the floaters, they themselves will perish. Physics and chemistry permit such life forms. Art presents them with a certain reality, but nature is not obliged to follow our speculations. However, if there are billions of inhabited worlds in the Milky Way galaxy, then I think it’s likely there are a few places which might have hunters and floaters and sinkers. Biology is more like history than it is like physics. You have to know the past to understand the present. There is no predictive theory of biology, just as there is no predictive theory of history. The reason is the same: both subjects are still too complicated for us. But we can understand ourselves much better by understanding other cases. The study of a single instance of extraterrestrial life, no matter how humble—a microbe would be just fine—will de-provincialize biology. It will show us what else is possible. We’ve heard so far the voice of life on only a single world. But for the first time, as we shall see, we’ve begun a serious scientific search for the cosmic fugue. In recent years, we’ve learned much more about the origin of life. Do you remember RNA—that nucleic acid that our cells use as messengers carrying the genetic information out of the cell nucleus? Well, it’s been found that RNA, like protein, can control chemical reactions as well as reproduce itself, which proteins can’t do. Many scientists now wonder if the first life on Earth was an RNA molecule. And it now seems feasible that key molecular building blocks for the origin of life fell out of the skies 4 billion years ago. Comets have now been found to have a lot of organic molecules in them, and they fell in huge numbers on the primitive Earth. We also mention the extinction of the dinosaurs, and most of the other species of life on Earth about 65 million years ago. We now know that a large comet hit the Earth at just that time. The dust pall from that collision must’ve cooled and darkened the Earth, perhaps killing all the dinosaurs but sparing the small, furry mammals who were our ancestors. Other cometary mass extinctions in other epochs seem likely. If true, this would mean that comets have been the bringers both of life and death.
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2020.10.07 22:47 GracefulBibliophile Stepkid found a “perverted” note; I’m laughing and dying.
My boyfriend’s child (11.5 male) found a note that boyfriend left for me last week when the kiddo was at BMs. It was a little scandalous and mentioned sex - because we are adults and it’s fun dammit.
I don’t know how he found it, it must’ve gotten left somewhere out of sight and neither of us threw it away. ￼He left a note in response while we were sleeping stating that we were PERVERTS!?!!? He also saw a pair of costume handcuffs in my Halloween decor box that I bought as part of a police costume years ago; placed these next to the note as evidence of our perversion. ￼￼￼
Backstory: Kiddo has been asking his dad lots of questions about sex, mentioned blow jobs this week (via text) and asking if dad gets them, is in disbelief that I want to do things of a sexual nature with my boyfriend. He has starting calling dad and I perverts; leaving us notes and sending text messages with this sort of ￼accusatory tone. Dad has talked to son about sex, said it’s normal to talk this way to partners, all very sex positive. I did tell him to not disclose anything about our sex life bc that’s private and for adults only.
I fell bad that he had to find the note. Told kiddo this and apologized for making him feel uncomfortable with an adult interaction. Also told him is not appropriate to call anyone a pervert especially an adult. ￼￼Similar instances like this of happened before when he has seen little mildly sexual exchanges (boyfriend wrote he liked my butt on a notepad once; kid went looking for and found a card I wrote dad - a well hidden note I will add.)￼ Kid gets very upset and calls us names when he stumbles upon these intimate exchanges.
I find his tone very disappointing and disrespectful; cannot imagine I would ever have said that to any adult, ever, at his age.
I have to laugh a little bc it’s funny but also I’m cringing. Please send advice for me, I’m mortified and also loling.
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2020.09.27 07:55 alleybetwixt Hidden sex scandal
|Article Title / Lede||Source||Discussion||Date|
|Police chief suspected of covering up the 'Burning Sun' scandal found not guilty of all charges||allkpop||Post Link||200424|
|Yang Hyun Suk Forwarded To Prosecution For Threatening Informant In Case Involving B.I||Soompi||Post Link||200427|
|Jung Joon Young And Choi Jong Hoon’s Sentencing Date For Their Appeal Trial Postponed||Soompi||Post Link||200507|
|Roy Kim Announces Acceptance To Marine Corps And Enlistment Date||Soompi||Post Link||200510|
|Jung Joon Young and Choi Jonghoon Have Prison Sentences Reduced By Appeals Court||Koreaboo||Post Link||200511|
|Choi Jong Hoon Takes Case To Supreme Court As He Files Appeal Over Prison Sentence||Soompi||Post Link||200518|
|Reporter Who Unveiled Jung Joon Young’s Chatrooms Reveals She Will Call Out More Celebrities Who Filmed Hidden Cameras||Koreaboo||Post Link||200518|
|Seoul Central District Prosecutor's Office to review and possibly re-investigate Yang Hyun Suk on his alleged drug scandal cover up||allkpop||Post Link||200526|
|Former Yuri Holdings CEO & Seungri's business partner Yoo admits to all charges involving 'Burning Sun'||allkpop||Post Link||200603|
|Prosecution Request Summary Judgement On Yang Hyun Suk’s Gambling Charges||Soompi||Post Link||200613|
|Choi Jong Hoon Reads Apology Letter During Appeal Trial Over Bribery And Illegal Filming Charges||Soompi||200618|
|Han Seo Hee From B.I And Yang Hyun Suk’s Drug Scandal Meets With Prosecutors, States “There Were Threats”||Koreaboo||200622|
|Seungri will be under trial for eight offenses, including sex trafficking, at the Ground Operations Command||allkpop||Post Link||200706|
|Han Seo Hee Tests Positive For Drugs Again, This Time While Already On Probation||Koreaboo||200709|
|Yang Hyun Suk's first trial for habitual overseas gambling will reportedly be held on August 14||@OH_mes2||200721|
|The date for Yang Hyun Suk's first trial on his overseas gambling charges set for August||allkpop||200721|
|Court Dismisses Appeals From Choi Jong Hoon And The Prosecution + Upholds Previous Sentence||Soompi||Post Link||200723|
|Han Seo Hee released from detention as her hair drug test comes back negative||allkpop||200811|
|Yang Hyun Suk Admits To Gambling Charges At First Hearing||Soompi||Post Link||200909|
|Seungri Admits To 1 Of 8 Charges At First Hearing||Soompi||Post Link||200915|
|Supreme Court Maintains Prison Sentences Of 5 Years And 2.5 Years For Jung Joon Young And Choi Jonghun For Group Sexual Assault||allkpop||Post Link||200924|
|Jung Joon Young And Choi Jong Hoon Receive Finalized Prison Sentences From Supreme Court||Soompi||200924|
Molka Chat Group:
- Purchase of prostitution services - Defense: Didn’t recall having sex with the woman and/or didn’t know she was a prostitute
- Prostitution mediation - Defense: Yoo In Suk handled mediation (also pleaded guilty) and Seungri wasn’t involved
- Violation of the Act on the Aggravated Punishment, etc. of Specific Economic Crimes (Embezzlement under specific circumstances)
- Violation of the Food Sanitation Act (2019 Soompi article for reference) - Defense: Seungri was overseas and not involved in direct decision-making and the registration problems were corrected by those who were
- Habitual gambling - Defense: Gambling was not the purpose of his visits to the US. He was there for work and completed his schedules
- Violation of the Foreign Exchange Transactions Act - Admitted guilt
- Violation of the Act on Special Cases Concerning the Punishment, etc. of Sexual Crimes - Defense: Seungri didn't take explicit photos himself, he re-shared them from an adult entertainment establishment with a group chat
2020.09.18 17:21 IdolA18Sep1l Wed-ding Ni-ght S-ex Po-rn
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2020.09.18 14:47 BuckRowdy Hidden sex scandal
This is an updated and edited version of a post I originally submitted at /redditcrimecommunity. It's been updated with the latest info.
I used to search to see if I could find out Jared's salary or his net worth because to me it seemed like he had the easiest job in the world. Just stand there and smile, hold up the giant pants, shake a few kids hands at store openings and other corporate promotional events; essentially play the character of Jared from the Subway commercials.
The Midwestern everyman who once weighed over 425 pounds and lost it all by eating at Subway every day. Of course the fine print at the bottom of the screen gave the wider context to his weight loss routine, but there was a much wider, much darker context to Jared's story that would only be revealed years later.
Jared started working for Subway in 2000. By 2005 they had stopped featuring him in commercials and their sales declined by 10%. They quickly reinstated him and he was a fixture ever since.
It is true that Jared did lose the weight, and he did do it in part by eating at Subway.
At this point it would be reasonable to ask how did he get the money as a college student to eat all his meals at Subway?
Because he was running a porn video rental business out of his apartment at the time and had an extensive collection. You've got to remember that this was in an era where media of all types was more difficult to obtain. You didn't have everything at your fingertips back then.
Subway opened up on the ground floor and Jared was lazy so he started eating all his meals there.
The rest of Jared's story is marketing mythology. A friend wrote an article in the student newspaper that got published in Men's Health which caught the eye of Subway's marketing department. Jared started working for Subway in 2000 and up until about 2007 it appeared to be a marketing master stroke. That's when the reports started trickling out. In 2007, TMZ published the story about the porn rental business.
We'd learn later that as early as 2008, Subway had received serious reports about Jared from a franchisee in Florida that Jared had befriended at a few store openings. Cindy Mills, the franchisee said:
"He would just tell me he really liked them young," she says. Fogle and Mills had a sexual relationship, which lead Fogle to disclose disturbing details of his criminal activity in lewd text messages. Jared was up to no good for years, but his world really started to crumble in 2015 with the arrest of Russell Taylor. Taylor was Jared's partner in his non-profit charity and he was just as bad as Jared if not worse.
Mills says she tried to blow the whistle by phoning ad executive Jeff Moody — then CEO of the Subway Franchisee Advertising Fund Trust (SFAFT) — after Fogle had told her that he had sex both in Thailand and the US with child prostitutes between the ages of 9 and 16 years old. According to Mills, Moody stopped her mid-conversation and said, "Don't worry, he has met someone. She is a teacher and he seems to love her very much, and we think she will help keep him grounded." Mills also claims she spoke with two more SFAFT execs after Moody, but ran into more dead ends.
Russell Taylor, the former director of Fogle's anti-childhood obesity foundation, was arrested in April [of 2015] on three counts of possession of child pornography, three counts of child exploitation, and three counts of voyeurism. Taylor had gotten in trouble for texting a woman a picture of bestiality and suggesting such between the two of them. It's a sick thing to think about, but that's just what Jared and Russell were up to.
In one of those text messages, according to the affidavit, “Russell Taylor asked her if he and another adult female she identified could come to Jane Doe’s residence and engage in” an act of bestiality. The woman did not agree to that request, but told investigators “you could tell (Taylor) was serious.” She also told investigators that “she received an image file via text from Russell Taylor that depicted (another act of bestiality).” Jared's house was raided and the rest quickly became history. Subway dropped him. Sharknado 3 dropped him. Jared accused Taylor of fraud and sued him. One quarter of the funds of the charity were unaccounted for, and the only money they ever paid out went to Taylor's $73k salary.
I'm no professional but it's hard not to draw the conclusion that Jared was paying Taylor to produce child porn with a non profit charity.
The world found out about Jared in 2015, but in 2007 and 2008 two women were finding out a lot about Jared.
Jared had met a franchisee in Florida and started a sexual relationship with her. She called the FBI when Jared started texting stuff like this:
In one series of texts sent from April 2008, Fogle tries to convince the franchisee, a woman, to advertise herself for sex on Craigslist. She could make $500 per act he explains and he could watch her have sex with other men. Fogle then goes on to apparently admit to paying for sex with a 16-year-old girl off Craigslist.
The woman franchisee writes: "Is this the same website you found that 16 year old you that you f---ed?" the woman replied, according to an affadavit.
Around the same time, Jared met Rochelle Herman Walrond, a journalist who initially remained anonymous, who came forward and said that she got suspicious about Jared when he called middle school girls hot
According to the woman, Jared would often visit schools in Sarasota County, and allegedly told her numerous times that, 'Middle school girls are hot.'" She contacted the FBI who asked her to wear a wire. She went on to record Jared over a nearly 5 year period, pleading with the FBI to go ahead and arrest him with them always saying that they didn't have enough evidence and needed more.
So she tried to get Jared to incriminate himself. Over that 4.5 year period they talked about a lot of stuff, like that Jared wanted to fly to Thailand to have sex with children.
"I would fly all three of us clear across the world if we need to,"[Jared] says on the tape. "It would just make things a lot easier — if we're going to try and get some young kids with us. It would be a lot easier probably." He gave her grooming tips:
"Well, if we get them segregated out ... you know, start talking or whatever ... and we get a little closer, and a little closer and a little closer and before you know it ... it just starts to happen," the man's voice says. "But I think that girl from the broken home could be a possibility, you know." He daydreamed on the phone:
"Do you want to watch me f— a young girl, too?" the voice of Fogle asks. "Will you f— a young boy?" When Herman-Walrond asks if that would turn Fogle on, he responds with a whispered "yeah." He also, allegedly, asked her repeatedly to let him install hidden cameras in her kids’ rooms.
“I had a little boy. It was amazing,” Fogle reportedly said, in response to a question about being with children. “It just felt so good. I mean, it felt—it felt so good.”
“I had two young children at the time, and he talked to me about installing hidden cameras in their rooms and asked me if I would choose which child I would like him to watch,” she told Inside Edition. The audio recordings can be heard at this link. She reported him to Subway in 2009 and nothing happened.
At the same time this was happening, Jared was flying to New York to pay for sex with minors. He asked the minors who he paid for sex if they knew anyone else they could recommend, always stressing younger if possible.
Also, according to the charging documents:
Fogle received "images and videos of nude of partially clothed minors engaged in sexually explicit conduct," which were allegedly recorded by Russell Taylor, the former director of the Jared Foundation. Taylor was in possession of 400 videos of child pornography upon his arrest.
Taylor secretly filmed some of the minors in his home using hidden cameras that captured them changing clothes and bathing.
In 2011, someone else reported Jared to Subway via their website and yet nothing happened.
All this came raining down on Jared in 2015 when his house was raided and he was arrested and later charged with 14 acts of sex involving minors. He was ultimately sentenced to 15 years in jail and had to pay restitution to his 14 of his many victims totaling $1.4 million. His wife divorced him as quick as she could, Subway cut ties with him and the dominoes started to tumble.
All of a sudden the past reports about Jared came to light and Subway didn't have an explanation. Lawsuits started flying. Jared's now ex wife accused Subway of covering up Jared's pedophilia even from her because their marriage made Jared more grounded and more marketable.
It's now a sick joke, but at the same time of jared's arrest, Subway was trying to rebrand him as a family man.
So why didn't Subway act on the various reports it had gotten about Jared over the years? As this site puts it, it was a story bookended by laziness. Jared's laziness brought him to Subway, and their laziness in vetting stories led to the end of the Jared era with a lot of human misery left in his wake.
Subway has waffled in its response. Rather than taking the path of clear messaging and communication, and aiming to transparent and authentic throughout this terrible situation for the victims and Fogle’s family (as well as the brand), the company hasn’t been clear about where it stands in the midst of this crisis. What message was Subway sending to its employees and franchisees by keeping Fogle around for as long as it did? As soon as he went to jail he instantly gained 30 pounds
In 2016, he filed an appeal which was denied. The DA's office argued:
[that] Fogle's text messages to a woman, in which Fogle stated he would "pay big" if she could procure 14-year-old children, and that he "craved" underage Asian girls. In these text messages, he also expressed sexual interest in young boys, although there is to date no evidence that he paid for sex with male children. Later that same year, a brawl broke out and Jared was nearly killed in an attack meant to send a message to all pedophiles.
Other than that, rumor has it that Jared has it pretty easy in jail which is disappointing to hear given all that he's responsible for.
In 2017, Fogle tried to pull the Sovereign Citizen defense and claim that the feds didn't have jurisdiction over him which I imagine gave the feds a good laugh. The motion was dismissed.
In 2018, Jared sued to void his conviction going so far as to name the president (among others) as a defendant. It was unclear how the president was involved and Jared was forced to remove him as a defendant.
he was wrongfully allowed to plead guilty to conspiracy to receive child pornography, claiming that conspiracy doesn’t apply to such an offense. His suit was dismissed.
That same year a woman pen pal of Jared's sold their racy letters to Radar Online. Seen here and here. She also sold a recorded phone call where she and Jared discuss porn and his sexual preferences.
If he wanted to appeal to a parole board, surely sending hand-drawn pictures of his genitalia that later end up on radar online is not a good strategy.
In March 2020, three of associate Russell Taylor's child pornography convictions were overturned for ineffective counsel. He still faces trial on 9 other charges.
In the five years since Fogle was arrested, Subway has been reeling. In 2015, their co-founder passed away and a new CEO was brought in. Internal reports indicate that customer traffic is down 30%. They've laid off over 400 people from the corporate HQ and this summer they had to revoke a promotion due to a franchisee revolt over the pricing.
Subway was associated so long with Jared it may take time for customers to form a new association. They tried to drop him once, struggled, and re-hired him. Clearly Subway lived in denial while Jared was their spokesman and looked the other way as business boomed. The new marketing strategy involves athletes. Time will only tell if they can recover from one of the worst scandals to ever hit a sandwich chain.
As of September 2020, Russell Taylor was being held at a federal prison in Yazoo City, Mississippi; Fogle was being held at a federal prison in Littleton, Colorado.
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2020.09.09 10:38 remy547 Hidden sex scandal
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2020.09.04 23:29 EliezerYudkowsky Hidden sex scandal
The Commander stood straight with his hands clasped behind his back, carefully upright despite his age even with no one present to bear witness to it. His eyes had fixed on the sterile white drifts beyond the reinforced window of his office, now appearing black beneath the night above. Some might have called the view uninspiring, but not far beyond the window lay a grave. It was not a much-decorated grave considering the expense it had taken to bury its sole occupant there, beneath a shipping tag torn from a compressed-air container and pinned in place with a knife.
The Commander wished that it was the grave's occupant standing here now instead of him. He didn't know what the hell he was supposed to do now, but whatever it was, the grave's occupant would have done it better.
Failing that, being able to phone home for orders would have been nice. The first flash of bad weather that knocked out their radio hadn't perturbed the Commander. The second surge, that knocked out the repaired radio, had perturbed him more. After receiving their unexpected visitor they'd took a chance on activating their last set of spares, and a storm had knocked that out too. Now they were out of contact for days, at least, until the base technicians could improvise another solution.
It didn't seem likely the visitor could have caused all that. But he was also having a hard time believing that it had been sheer coincidence. Perhaps their visitor had known that they would be out of contact, at this particular time, and had chosen just then to arrive...
The communicator on his desk warbled out its mock-melody, and the Commander took a step over to press the button with only a glance at the ID. He'd been waiting on this call.
A young woman's voice said, "Sir."
There had been a time earlier in his career when he would have been nervous about handing over duties this important to a member of the fairer sex. He felt no such anxiety this day. Nobody got assigned to this Base unless they were damned good at their jobs.
The vidscreen flickered into action, displaying the upper half of - the Commander privately admitted and would certainly never say out loud - the prettiest sight on the Base, or at least, she'd been the prettiest sight as of one day earlier. If Major Jane Getherde was feeling any feminine jealousy about her suddenly materialized competition, she wasn't showing it.
"All right," the Commander said. "Tell me about our... guest."
"Do you want the most important parts first or should I take things in order?"
"Take it in order, if there's nothing of imminent urgency." He should have been woken again from his sleep if that had occurred. He wouldn't have been sleeping at all, in this situation, except he'd already stayed awake the previous 36 hours trying to fix the radio problem. He was no longer as young as he'd been.
Major Getherde's comportment betrayed no sign of fatigue from her own sleepless night. "All the noninvasive examination I could do with medical instrumentation I had on hand showed our guest as an ordinary human female in every respect. Zero scars, zero birthmarks, no evidence of significant surgeries. White, perfectly aligned teeth with no evidence of fillings or other dental work. Her feet do not have calluses."
The Commander raised a hand and massaged his temples. "Can you tell me whether we're looking at advanced medical care, genetic engineering, or something wearing a newly grown body?"
"I can't think of an easy way to tell. You could order me to inflict a small cut on her and observe how fast it heals."
The Commander grimaced. "Let's continue holding off on that for now. The items she had with her?"
"The earrings glow faintly in the dark. No alpha or beta, very low gamma, consistent with a properly shielded isotopic power source. The high heels seemed ordinary on a surface examination. I didn't want to try more destructive tests, such as X-Rays that could potentially destroy concealed microfilm, without waiting for orders."
Considering that the visitor had been wearing nothing except earrings and high heels on arrival, under circumstances where a visitor should have been wearing rather more, he would have bet a great deal of money that the heels were not ordinary either. "Agreed. Keep holding off on that."
"A full medical examination revealed that the subject had a small case hidden in her vagina. I, ah, took it out. It wasn't locked, and inside were two ampules that looked like they were intended for a hypodermic injector. The case is self-refrigerating."
The Commander grimaced, not liking to think of the required invasion. "Any notion of what it was doing up there?"
"No sir. Obvious thoughts are that she was hiding it, or that something about her transportation method made it easier to carry things inside her body. The XO decided that the equipment should be kept away from the subject for now."
The Commander nodded. "I concur. Continue."
"The two ampules inside the case appeared to be filled with a homogenous transparent liquid. Since there were two seemingly identical ampules, the XO agreed that it was reasonable to draw a small amount of the liquid for further examination. After optical microscopy failed, I had the electron microscope moved into the medical section. Electron microscopy showed virus particles in suspension."
The Commander didn't straighten, because he was already standing completely straight, but his expression sharpened. "A virus? Are you sure?"
"It was hard to be sure from electron microscopy alone. After some discussion with the XO I decided it was worth the risk to inoculate a live mouse with a tiny amount of the fluid - under highest biohazard conditions - in order to observe the results."
The Commander shook his head, frowning. "Not what I would have done," he understated.
"I wasn't sure how long the sample of liquid would survive. The XO thought it made more sense to use it before losing it, rather than needing to draw another sample later. It did seem like something we'd want to try at some point."
The Commander sighed. "So do we now have a shape-changing psionic supermouse destroying our base?"
"No sir?" Major Getherde sounded uncertain.
The trouble with youngsters nowadays was not just that they lacked history but that, lacking history, they lacked imagination. If you were a Native American and people in unfamiliar ships suddenly showed up on your shore, you would be mistaken to assume that your experience with arrows let you understand the destructive potential of the invaders' ammunition stores. Playing with the stranger's toys while she was asleep had not been the correct move.
"What did happen?" said the Commander.
"After a period of four hours consistent with rapid incubation of a disease, the mouse developed a fever. At four and a half hours it began to bleed from all orifices, then it... melted... and then what was left caught on fire."
The Commander scrutinized Major Getherde to see if she was joking, although that seemed unlikely under the circumstances. "A bioweapon?" he said, feeling chilled.
"I would be shocked if it were intended as a weapon, sir," Major Getherde replied, sounding more confident than her previous statements. "A bioweapon should have a long period of contagious incubation, and should only produce symptoms that contribute to its propagation or lethality. Nobody engineering a bioweapon would sit there thinking about how to make the corpse catch on fire after it finished melting."
The Commander nodded, feeling ashamed of himself for not seeing that earlier, and mentally upgrading his estimate of the girl's competence by another notch. "Do you have any idea what the virus is, if not a weapon?"
"Speculation only. I think we may be looking at a biological Swiss army knife, a multitool. A portable lab. I can't see much detail with our equipment, but the virus particles were huge, as large as a herpes virus, and those can carry hundreds of kilobases of DNA. In the hands of an expert, there might be specific settings that produce supermice. We didn't know how to use the portable laboratory, so it deployed random effects that melted the mouse and set it on fire."
That made a surprising amount of sense. The Commander turned the idea over in his mind, considering it. If he had been traveling far from his home civilization, unable to carry even the clothes on his back but still able to carry one kilo of material, his first thought would have been to bring with the Library of Congress on a hyperchip, plus a microfilm on how to construct a reader to retrieve the hyperchip's data. Taking an entire laboratory wouldn't have occurred to him... but that was because his civilization still thought in terms of machines and engines, rather than kilobases of DNA. His race had unlocked the secrets of the Atom; the mysteries held in Life were of a higher order. "Do you have any idea how to operate her... laboratory?"
"It could be a matter of exposing the ampule to a sequence of colored lights. Or feeding a subject the right mix of eye of toad and tongue of newt before infection, if the tool is meant to operate in more primitive settings. The key could be in the earrings, or the high heels, or something we haven't spotted. It seems likely to take considerable experimentation, if we can work it out at all."
The Commander grimaced. "Had the feeling it was a stupid question, but I was hoping you'd tell me otherwise."
"Sorry sir." Major Getherde looked genuinely apologetic.
"Not your fault, son," the Commander said before he could stop himself, then helplessly considered if he should correct himself to "daughter" which did not sound right to him, or apologize to her, or... it was probably better to just drop it. "Next steps?"
Major Jane Getherde spread her hands. "Wait for our guest to wake up."
As if timed to her words, beeping began to sound from off the vidscreen.
A couple of hours later, the Commander was sitting beside Lt. Commander Akio Nagasaki, his base second-in-command, one of Japan's contributions to NATO. Major Getherde had been the only person to have physical contact with the visitor, sealed away from the rest of the base in the medical quarantine unit - the most obvious and basic of precautions. The Commander had on further consideration taken the less obvious step of ordering that only Major Getherde was permitted to communicate directly with the visitor. The existence of psionics and mental superpowers still seemed unlikely, even under the circumstances. But the Commander couldn't be sure, that was the problem, he couldn't be sure of anything. The visitor could have a hyper-advanced organic computer buried in her brain, indetectable to X-Rays, augmenting her ability to read body language and manipulate lesser minds. God damn it, shouldn't his base have had detailed protocols on file for a Little Green Man scenario?
"Report," the Commander said to Major Getherde's image on the vidscreen.
Major Getherde had a distant look about her, as though she was operating on momentum while not really believing in what was happening. "Our visitor identified herself as 'Starry' and presents herself as being... well, sir, I know it sounds unbelievable, and I'm not asserting any such thing myself, but 'Starry' claims to be from an alternate branch of Earth's history."
Beside him, Nagasaki's eyebrows flew up, the Japanese man showing more open emotion than he usually did. The Commander's own mind was recalling dim memories of sci-fi stories he'd read when he was a good deal younger, in particular the Paratime stories by H. Beam Piper. In his mind's eye he stretched out a long timeline of Earth's history, ready to extrapolate possible changes. "Point of divergence?" the Commander said at once. He'd been prepared to stay calm in the face of stranger stories than that one.
The Major looked taken aback herself at her Commander's lack of shock. "Ah... I'm not sure. Taking everything she said at face value, 'Starry' said she was from the United States of her world, a town called Norville in central California. We don't seem to have a national street map on base, so I couldn't check her knowledge of local roads, but she had Interstate 5 right. Her belief about the current date and year matches ours, minus the day she spent unconscious. She confirmed George Washington as the first President and that Abraham Lincoln won the Civil War. She recognized Eisenhower's name, though she wasn't sure whether he'd been President. Mentioning Harry Truman's name made her say 'Dewey defeats Truman', so that part happened the same way. World War II ended with atom bombs being dropped on, ah..." The Major's eyes darted in the direction that would correspond to Akio Nagasaki on her own vidscreen - an unnecessary concern, but the Major evidently didn't know that. "The same two cities. No recognition of Adlai Stevenson's name, or any later Presidents from our world except Jimmy Carter. She named John F. Kennedy as a President in her own world, one she remembered because he'd been assassinated."
That put the divergence at 1960 or earlier. Part of the Commander's mind was trying out possible stories for what would have changed without Stevenson in power. More of his attention was focused on the further implications of her not knowing whether Eisenhower had been President in her America. "She didn't know her own world's history?" he said.
Major Getherde wore a look of faint disapproval. "She had to think hard to remember the current Speaker of the House - Nancy Pelosi, no idea who that is - and she had no idea at all who her Representative was."
"Amnesia?" Akio said.
"I don't think so, and she didn't seem otherwise stupid or scatterbrained. More like she'd played hooky on all her high school civics classes and her family didn't subscribe to any newspapers."
Akio snorted, mirroring the Major's disapproving look.
The Commander lifted a quelling hand. "Don't judge her when we don't know her circumstances," he stated. God knew there were still some kids, even in America, who legitimately had more urgent concerns than their future civic duties. "The larger implication is that our visitor is not an experienced... parallel-timeline traveler, let's call it, or 'paratimer' for short. I would expect a veteran paratimer to have a wide grasp of history."
"Our visitor seems reluctant to speak of how she got here," Major Getherde said. "But it did seem like her journey might have been... unintended."
Beside him, Akio was frowning. "She brought arong a biorogicar raboratory in her vagina," he said in his accented English. "I doubt she arways carries one in her vagina."
It was a good point. The Commander pondered it. "Her apparent age doesn't square with travel on diplomatic or military business," he said aloud. "A stowaway? A refugee of disaster?"
"Our visitor did seem somewhat in shock when she first woke up." The Major seemed slightly embarrassed. "My first priority was putting a blanket around her and telling her she was safe, which seemed to help."
Akio and the Commander traded glances.
"Continue with the report," the Commander said.
Major Getherde looked down and off-screen, probably at her notes. "Again taking all she says at face value, her timeline is advanced beyond our own in the biological and computational sciences, behind us in atomic energy and space travel. Specifically, her timeline doesn't seem to have developed liquid-phase fission reactors, with drastic consequences for all civilization. She had vague memories of learning about an 'oil crisis' that happened in the 1970s. Global warming is becoming a planet-threatening catastrophe. She didn't recognize the names or models of the first Nerva-series spaceships, and seemed genuinely shocked at the concept of using atomic energy for propulsion. Her first question was about radioactive waste contaminating the atmosphere, and she looked surprised and interested when I said a spaceship's atomic reactor only heated the propellant rather than spraying out fissionable materials." Major Getherde spread her hands to display her own puzzlement at the visitor's puzzlement. "Her world has one space station and that's it. She didn't know its tonnage, or whether it was in low orbit or higher. Her people visited the Moon in the 1960s a few times and then they never went back."
The Commander pursed his lips, loading this scenario in his mental timeline. "I hadn't thought liquid-phase atomics would represent a serious technological bottleneck," he said. "I certainly wouldn't expect the idea of using a reactor to heat inert propellant to be a difficult concept." He glanced at Akio, who might know more.
Akio seemed absorbed in thought. "Both riquid-phase reactors and inert-properrant rockets have great engineering difficuruties," he said eventually. "But I wourud not have expected it to be impossiburu in the face of effort. There is no brirriant invention at the core, only much work."
"It could be a cultural issue," said Major Getherde. "Our visitor seemed to show traces of a superstitious or religious dread about atomic energy."
"Hm," said the Commander. He was by far the oldest person on the Base, the token Experienced Officer appointed to ride herd over much healthier youngsters. Even he wasn't old enough to remember the initial introduction of A-bombs in 1945. Still, he knew that dread of atomic energy had been widespread immediately after. If that attitude had persisted and grown, producing a general retreat from material technology into the realm of the mental and biological... he could see it, the Commander supposed. Especially if their timeline had acquired stronger justifications for fear. "Any large-scale atomic exchanges in their history? Any use of atomic weapons above the deca-kiloton level?"
"I... I'm sorry, sir, I didn't think to ask explicitly. It hadn't occurred to me that she wouldn't have mentioned something like that, if it had happened."
The increased fear would have needed to begin early enough to avert research into liquid-phase atomics, which had begun in the 1960s according to his memory. Truman had still been elected in 1948, with events proceeding similarly enough to duplicate the famous headline... "Maybe ask her about the Korean Invasion in particular," said the Commander. "Truman played a damn tight game there. Using Mark-4s may have gotten the NKs to back off, but a lot of historians worry it could have gone the other way - normalized the general use of nukes in warfare, instead of showing that we were willing to use tac-nukes defensively."
Major Getherde nodded. "I'll ask. However things played out, their Cold War ended in the late 1980s with victory to the West -"
"How?" the Commander demanded, leaning forward at the vidscreen as if to press answers out of it. That could be the single most important item of knowledge their visitor had.
"She had only vague ideas. Her rough picture was that the Soviet Union ran out of resources to contend with us and gave up, dissolving into its constituent countries." Major Getherde spread her hands. "The Eastern economies have always been less efficient. As it stands, they're wringing their civilian populations dry to maintain a war footing. Take away everyone's atomic generators, and..."
"Christ," the Commander muttered. "Talk about the mother of all mixed blessings." What he wouldn't have given for a good look at the history shelves of a dozen timelines! If there was a real Paratimer civilization out there, their grasp of history would be chemistry to his Earth's alchemy. A true science that laid out cause and effect with surgical precision, relegating his own historical monographs to poetical essays for the fiction stacks of the library... with an effort, he focused again on the vidscreen. "Maybe I'm being sidetracked from more important issues, but curiosity is eating me alive. What happens after the end of the Cold War?"
Major Getherde hesitated. "Not... not what we'd hoped. My impression is that her United States is also on the verge of dissolution."
A shock of horror went through him. The Commander reminded himself that it wasn't his world... but if there were mistakes that could destroy the West, it was the type of lesson best learned in a single world, once. "What's happening to them? Running out of coal?"
"I..." Major Getherde looked at her notes, and shook her head. "I don't know how to - I don't understand - her attitude towards capitalism versus communism was one of utter despair in both systems. I don't know whether to write it off as teenage nihilism or if her world has been through experiences I can't imagine. I asked if they were having an economic depression. She said that official statistics said no, but it seemed to her like the economy in her city was feeling very sad. And though she didn't say it in so many words, it sounded to me like her America was heading for civil war. As if the only thing holding the USA together had been the Cold War, and once the common enemy was gone, internal divisions began tearing America apart. Political lines more than racial ones, 'reds' versus 'blues'. And it also sounded as if - as if the United States lost interest in its ideals once we didn't have the Soviet Union to contrast ourselves to. People being arrested and held without trial and, and worse. She didn't seem to think other Western countries were better off, and she didn't think the decay was being driven by environmental meltdown or resource exhaustion but by some type of - inward despair, madness, a mass psychological catastrophe of unknown origin. I halfway expected her to describe Martian telepaths launching a psychic assault on all of Terra's sanity like in War of the Worlds IV. Some of what she said sounded like a joke, or insane, the most extreme case being that Donald Trump was elected US President in 2016."
"I have not heard of him?" Akio said, glancing in the Commander's direction.
The Commander was trying desperately to keep a straight face. President Donald Trump. Christ, that wasn't funny, it wasn't funny at all, what was wrong with him, that had actually happened in some poor lost timeline out there. There were real people living in that para-Earth, American citizens, his officers would be rightly critical of him if he started laughing. He just hadn't been prepared to encounter those three words in that order.
"Imagine the most vulgar man in the world," the Commander said, once he felt confident in his ability to keep it together. "Donald Trump is twice as vulgar as that. The only reason the Dems would field him for the White House would be if they wanted to horrify Republicans as much as possible." He was tempted to crack a remark about having not thought even the Democratic Party could sink that low, but he restrained himself. It wasn't his world's Democratic Party, and political dialogue was vitriolic enough without mudraking for scandals from multiple timelines.
"Ah... sir, she said Donald Trump was elected on the Republican ticket."
For a second the Commander thought he'd misheard. "Say again."
"Donald Trump is a Republican President in their world."
"Is he a conservative in their timeline?" the Commander said blankly. "Family man, distinguished service record?"
"She had only vague ideas about his policies but said that the main one she remembered was building a giant wall between the United States and Mexico."
Akio and the Commander looked at each other, and both started to speak at the same time. Military protocol being what it was, that meant the Commander went first. "Can you imagine selective developments or non-developments in military technology that would make a new Maginot Line useful to the USA in the event of war on a Mexican front?" the Commander said.
Akio shook his head. "Extreme deemphasis of air power? I have nothing."
The Commander looked at Major Getherde.
"I - I don't think - I don't think we can understand - there's something very wrong with her world. I said that to her outright and she just nodded. The things she said - I can't summarize, it was a gestalt feeling - that was the largest single thing but there were little things too. She's from a timeline where that is what their lives are like."
"Something went wrong with their advanced biotechnorogy," Akio proposed.
The Commander felt the chill all the way to his ankles. His base's reactor needed a more powerful self-destruct.
Major Getherde glanced back down at her notes. "I had a similar thought," she said. "There could be some drug or supplement that everyone was taking, with undiscovered effects on the brain, like the lead-poisoning theory of the fall of Rome. They'd have no way of knowing that what was happening in their timeline wasn't normal."
The Commander thought that the woman might have an unexplored talent for writing psychological horror stories. Christ, what a terrifying thought.
Major Getherde was still talking. "Another possibility is that it has something to do with their more advanced hyperchip technology. 'Starry' said they'd recently developed the false-reality device that's always five years out according to Popular Science - completely surrounding a person with a binocular 3D vidscreen built into a helmet. That could be having an effect on their psychology, I suppose? People losing contact with reality? Or some broader psychiatric syndrome caused by too much contact with the inhuman logic of computers. An emotional reaction, people clinging to instinct and illogic as a form of protest..." Getherde let out a breath. "I keep wondering whether there's some way for our dimension to launch a rescue mission to their dimension, but I have no idea what we'd do once we got there."
"Let's not get that far ahead of ourselves," the Commander said. "Anything else to report?"
"Our guest seemed oddly interested in hearing about," the woman looked uncomfortable, "well, our sexual standards. I think she was surprised when I told her we were, ah, normal. As if she was expecting to arrive in a culture more... licentious." Major Getherde hesitated. "She seemed surprised that I, personally, was making no attempt to force myself on her. Despite the extreme inappropriateness given the age difference and the serious overall situation and my position as a medical doctor, on a military base where both of us were being recorded at all times, not to mention that she is effectively our prisoner and protected by international conventions!"
"She's a resbian?" Akio said.
The Commander gave the younger man a sideways glance, just to make sure he wasn't leering, but his comport looked as decorous as usual.
"More that she expected me to be homosexual, and - and she thought that's what homosexuals were like!" Major Getherde sounded even more uncomfortable than before.
An intuition tickled at the Commander, born of years of command and experience with subordinates being evasive. He thought again about sci-fi depictions of psionic powers, or implanted hyperchips for reading body language. He needed to ask Major Getherde, in strict confidence and with some urgency, whether the visitor had in fact been right about her - whether the Major had felt a desire to take advantage of their visitor, and properly repressed it. But not with Akio listening. The Japanese were less liberal than modern America about such matters.
"The two packages of virus?" said the Commander, giving the Major a chance to change the subject.
"She seemed surprised that I'd found them at all. Then she said she'd only discuss that with the base commander."
The Commander pursed his lips thoughtfully. It could be a trick to get into his presence. It could also be a legitimate request for any number of excellent reasons. Put Akio in temporary command? The man was as steady as any XO he'd known.
"That reminds me," Major Getherde said. "I'm not sure, but... I think the visitor might have recognized your name when I said it, Commander? She did ask for you by name, after I explained the radio outage and said you were at the top of the current chain of command."
"Ran for President in her timerine, on the Democratic ticket," said Akio, and the Commander shot him a glare.
The Major hesitated. "Actually... I'd have to review the recordings... but in retrospect, I think that mentioning your name was when she stopped acting like I was about to sexually assault her. It was shortly afterward that she first asked for clothing. It's - it's sad that the flag on my uniform wasn't enough. I would have hoped that the Stars and Stripes would mean more than that, even across timelines. Are individual people greater constants than countries? Do genes count for that much? Or fate?" She shook her head. "Sorry, sir, it's hard not to think about - to get distracted by - doctors usually don't have to deal with issues this deep during medical examinations."
"Hmmm..." the Commander hmmmed. Akio's crack there, born of long acquaintance between them and trust enough to jaw about politics, had triggered a thought.
Then the Commander chuckled, unable to help himself despite the severity of the situation.
He'd spotted the joke.
"All right," the Commander said, "I guess I'd better talk with the young lady. Akio, I'm relinquishing command to you pending our recontact with home."
"Sir," Akio said. He hesitated. "Are you certain this is wise?"
"If we trust appearances, this young lady knows one of my alternate selves quite well. Well enough to wind me up some while letting me know that she and I are acquainted. I doubt she made up the story of her dying world from whole cloth, but she did change one detail."
Akio raised his eyebrows again.
The commandant of Heinlein Base leaned back in his chair, an easy motion in the low gravity. Beyond him in the window behind, the searing darkness of the Lunar night stretched out above Mare Imbrium, the white dust blackened beneath it, save where a single spotlight imperishable shone upon the grave of the base's namesake. "Republican President, my ass," said Commander Marcus Adan.
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